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Mammalian Protein Subcellular Localization Database

Sorting Signal Predictions

Motifs were those described as being involved in recognition of cargo by accessory proteins of COP and clathrin coated vesicles, as described by McMahon and Mills (2004) (PMID 15261670). The consensus motif sequences were converted to Perl regular expressions, and a Perl script was created to search for motifs in the protein sequences of the cytoplasmic regions of integral membrane proteins (except for KDEL, which was searched for in soluble secreted proteins).

Motif NameRegular ExpressionAccessory protein(s)Region of protein searched Protein sorting
Lxx[L/M]EL\w\w[LM]ESec24pall cytoplasmic regions signals protein export from ER
NPVYNPVYARH1/2all cytoplasmic regions signals internalization/endocytosis from plasma membrane
FxNPxYF\wNP\wYDab2/Doc2all cytoplasmic regions signals internalization/endocytosis from plasma membrane
DxxLLD\w\wLL\w{0,3}$GGA-1C-terminus signals TGN-endosome/lysosome sorting
KKxxKK\w\w$aCOPC-terminus signals retrograde transport from Golgi to ER
KxKxxK\wK\w\w$a/b-COPC-terminus signals retrograde transport from Golgi to ER
KDEL[HK]DEL$KDEL-RC-terminus ER localization signal
yxxΦY\w\w[FIMLV]AP1, AP2, AP3, AP4cytoplasmic tail signals TGN-endosome sorting, plasma membrane exocytosis, melanosome biogenesis, basolateral sorting
[D/E]xxx[L/I][DE]\w\w\w[LI]AP1, AP3cytoplasmic tail signals TGN-endosome sorting, melanosome biogenesis
[DE]xxxL[LI][DE]\w\w\wL[LI]AP2, AP3cytoplasmic tail signals plasma membrane exocytosis, melanosome biogenesis
DxED\wESec24pcytoplasmic tail signals protein export from ER
xxRR^\w\w[KR][KR]ERN-terminus ER localization signal


COP and clathrin-coated vesicle budding: different pathways, common approaches.
McMahon HT, Mills IG.
Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2004 Aug;16(4):379-91
PMID: 15261670
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Signals for sorting of transmembrane proteins to endosomes and lysosomes.
Bonifacino JS, Traub LM.
Annu Rev Biochem. 2003;72:395-447. Epub 2003 Mar 6
PMID: 12651740
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Signal-mediated sorting of membrane proteins between the endoplasmic reticulum and the golgi apparatus.
Teasdale RD, Jackson MR.
Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 1996;12:27-54
PMID: 8970721

Copyright 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007 Institute of Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland and the ARC Centre in Bioinformatics
We gratefully acknowledge the support of the Australian Research Council.